One of the main arguments that we often hear from those who consider every innovation as sin and loss is the concept that, if the Prophet (pbuh) has not acted in a certain way, then such an action is considered prohibited and innovation (bid’ah). This is one of the strangest things one can be said about this issue. Not everything that the Prophet (pubh) did not act is considered as prohibited – even if it it a type of worship – especially when he has not forbidden people from doing so.
It is clear that generally, the concept of Islamic scholars regarding the issue of innovation (bid’ah) has been misunderstood, misinterpreted and often ignored by scholars and self-taught people who have created a conflictual climate. Minimally, a silence on the issuance of accusations, allegations, and labels is required, avoiding such allegations that all those who do not think like them have deviated from the Lord’s path and are at risk of being punished by Him in eternal life for subject matters of human reasoning. Constructive debate is the one that paves the way for understanding and justification of different thinking and, consequently, the unification and brotherhood of believers – an action that pleases the Lord of the universe, his honored Prophet and all believers as well. Allah knows best!
Prof. Assoc. Dr. Gentiana Skura, University of Tirana
Dr. Robert Gjedia, University “Marin Barleti”
Dr. Genti Kruja, “Bedër” University
Civic education curricula in pre-university education is developed through the subjects of “Education for Society” and “Civics” and aims at forming the knowledge, skills, attitudes and civic values of the students of this educational cycle by heavily relying on philosophies, good practices and models of European citizenship and the democratic world in particular, where in their essence lie individual rights and responsibilities, law enforcement, environmental care, the right to employment, human security and coexistence in the community. The content of the aforementioned subjects does not affect any information or practice of education related to matters of religious instruction and education. Also, this type of education has a special place in the curriculum that is sufficient to achieve the desired goals and competencies for the students, considering the amount of hours, the specific weight of the curriculum area, as well as of the genuine subjects of civic formation taught in all three pre-university education cycles, compared to the curricula of European education systems.
Madrasas develop the official curriculum for pre-university education cycles, but they also have a part of their curriculum with a religious orientation, which is also approved by the Ministry of Education.
Religious subjects are integrated into the official curricula of the madrasas in such a way as to be supportive of the topics covered by civic education subjects. Since the person living in a democratic system is very similar to a believer in his/her behaviours (regardless his/her religious affiliation), the common themes of these subjects are numerous.
3 Waqfs in Albania from the Ottoman period to the communist regime
The creation of waqf institutions in Albanian territories begins after the arrival of the Ottomans in the Balkans, starting from the second half of the XV-th century. These institutions have played an extremely important role in the socio-economic and religious life of the Albanian population. Indeed, various studies show that some of the Albanian medieval urban centers were created because of Waqfs. This is also true for Tirana, which today is the capital of the Republic of Albania.
During the Ottoman period, the amount of agricultural assets, mosques, taps or objects that were donated as a Waqf experienced a large extent in all urban and rural centers of Albania. This is also evidenced by the names these assets carry, which, in most cases, belong to the persons who donated or built them.
After Albania’s secession from the Ottoman Empire, the traditions of the donation as Waqfs of the assets continued with the same intensity. But at that period, Waqfs were being administered by the Albanian Muslim Community, which already was an independent institution from the Ottoman Caliphate. In the period 1920-1944 there was an increase in the level of Waqf management. For a proper management, special regulations were drafted, which set rigorously the way they functioned. Their income were used for the restoration and construction of mosques, opening of courses and religious schools, qualification of staff, or for solving of the problems of the Islamic community.
An unfavorable situation for Waqfs was created in Albania after 1945, when the communist regime was installed. The repressive measures that the Albanian government pursued in this period originally consisted of the restriction, and then the destruction of religious institutions. In this period, laws which overwhelmingly passed the Waqf assets to the state were drafted, while, in 1967, religion was banned by law, and most of the mosques were destroyed. Nowadays, the attitude of the Albanian state to the restoration of Waqfs is confusing.
Keywords: Albania, Waqf, the Albanian Muslim Community, management of Waqfs, legislation.
Prof. Ndr. jazi Kazazi
Department of Linguistics
University of Shkodra “Luigj Gurakuqi”
As widely known, Albania turned into a battlefield during the First World War. In 1916, there were armies of 5 different states in the territory of Albania. Despite the difficult conditions of war, where our country suffered enormous economic damage and was divided into three occupation zones, progressive forces, patriots and folk teachers, tried to exploit those few opportunities created for the benefit of our national cultural development and education.
Being educated today is considered one of the most normal objectives, nay the most important one. The importance of the human being education has become such an axiomatic belief, that nobody cares if one has the capacity and the potential to absorb and express knowledge. Fourly convinced that without going through the links of the educational chain there is no chance of becoming a true human being, everyone is getting educated, dreaming so a later successful end through interim. Man likes to dream and imagine fictional success, because he can ease in this way the burden and weight of tension that stems from the huge difficulties lying in the path of the educated people. The evolution of many ideas and practices in human society cannot leave the education intact. The technical-information revolution has generated many dreams of many people – dreams that are giving shape to the reality of the educated. Building realities based on dreams and imaginations inspired by artificial instruments cannot bring anything new beyond the possibilities. In this situation, it is our duty – as beings of this world – to strive hard in clarifying our ideas and imaginations in order to remove the beautiful veil of technology adorned with the flowers of progress. It is more than natural that we try to move things toward improvement and relief. We should not – for the sake of this improvement or relief – be alienated from our earlier goal. We should not consider ourselves as self-sufficient and not in need for anyone since we already possess science and technology. Avoiding the lure from these dreams is our challenge.
Keywords: Technologization, Education, Being in Opportunity, Progress, Challenge
Dr. Mehmet Tütüncü
The Global Research Center for Turkish and Arab Languages, Haarlem, The Netherlands
This is a study and publication on Ottoman inscriptions in southern Albania, defined as the region between Vlora and the Greek border. Over the last few years, many new inscriptions (mainly gravestones) have been discovered by foreign and local scholars. Inscriptions taken from the literature (Evlia Çelebi and others) have been added to these new inscriptions. 25 graffiti from this area, dating from 1542 to 1897, are published here as part of the Corpus of Ottoman inscriptions in Albania. These inscriptions are analyzed in the light of their historical and cultural context. They contain information about the activities in the field of construction, life and culture of this region during the centuries of Ottoman rule in Albania.
“Drita Islame” as a responsible tool of mass communication in the trend of current developments
Doc. Dr. Ramadan Çipuri
“Drita Islame” was not just a newspaper or magazine published by MCA in the classical form in which we are accustomed to see the organs of the religious press. It has been a window of communication between the highest Muslim institution in the country and the public as a whole.
The particularity here lies in the fact that “Drita Islame” has managed to communicate not only with the traditional public t as we are accustomed to know but also with the so-called “public” in communication sciences, ie different types of public within and outside our country.
The message brought by “Drita Islame” is not only of a religious character, but it also addresses a number of problematic issues related to education, economy, norms of community behavior, issues of social and political nature, etc.
Prof. Dr. Ruzhdie Qafmolla
The structure of the family in the perspective of “Drita Islame” should be viewed from the perspective of horizontal function in micro-systemic and macro-system dimensions. The issue of the family in sociology – especially in contemporary sociology and Islamic ethics – takes an important place. The family phenomenon considered from the perspective of morality protection is considered among the most fundamental and dynamic factors of society and of the human enrichment regarding the interpersonal relationships in the human being.
Thus, the family is a special kind of structure through blood bonding and moral conjugal relationships, held through mutual demands defined by religion, reinforced by the law of Shari’ah and rebuilt by the individual.
Woman has a contribution of special importance for the renewal of society. It is required from her to recognize the religion, to be one of those who continuously accomplish the duties of Allah – the Exalted, the husband, the children, the society and the homeland without neglecting any of them. Emancipation and advancement of women within Islamic norms, consists in a more emancipated society, which requires the approach of women in all areas of social life and the elimination of the wrong worldview according which a woman is only a mother and that her biological function is only giving birth to children and thus it must be and remain a household, closed and connected only to children. Contemporary women, entangled with Islamic ideology, are increasingly emancipated and with increasing abilities that allow them to be active in economic and political life.
9. The process of the Republic of Kosovo independence and its role in the political stability of the Balkans and across Europe
M.Sc. Artan S. Mehmeti
Republic of Kosovo with an area of 10,907 km2, and about 2.2 million inhabitants, is the newest state in the world. The process of Kosovo’s independence has gone through a long and difficult period, from which many people were dead and are still missing. The newest country’s in the world has been recognized by 108 countries. The proclamation of independence has produced local and regional stability; this is confirmed by the opinion of the ICJ adviser, as well as of many well-known international politicians and analysts. Even after the declaration of independence, the Republic of Kosovo is still facing many difficulties both in economic and social terms and also in politics. There is still a lot of work for the Kosovo institutions to do in enabling Kosovo move towards the road to accession to the EU and NATO. Kosovo’s independence act is only a correction of the injustices that have been made to the Albanian people at the Conference of Ambassadors in London, from which, Kosovo and other Albanian lands, were detached from the Albanian state and given to neighboring states.
(3.11. 1947 – 13. 11. 2016)
By Academician Feti Mehdiu
He was the Imam of “Hajji Ramadan” mosque in Prizren and of “Hadim Aga” mosque in Gjakova. He was a tireless man, who also carried the duty of leading the Islamic Community Council in Gjakova. When he was in Gjakova, he gave a special contribution in organizing many important activities for the population of this region. Especially he tried to help the families of martyrs and victims of war, to collect the means of assistance to the Kosovo Liberation Army, for which the Gratitude on Flag Day on 28 November 1997 was also given to him by the Municipal Council in Prizren. He also participated in the action of feud recounciliation and in official meetings in international missions, observing the situation of war developments in Kosovo.
قال عليه الصلاة و السلام: «من عرف نفسه فقد عرف ربه»
Here, the goal of this Prophetic tradition “Who knows himself, knows the God” is not to make people think that if they know their own physical image are able to know the God, rather, those people who have insight and sound thinking, a healthy brain and after analyzing with attention and interests their own organism and the philosophical function of their own brain will make their conscience to ask themselves: “Who is that philosophical artist of theis marvelous art that is outside of the human competency circle?”
So, if anybody answers to this question by saying “I am able to create such an art without obeying the law of the First Artist” ie stating “I am able to create humans without obeying the Divine Law” let’s start to create them, for we from now and on will congratulate him, as he will establish a record in the entire word and will become the King of the humanity because he will exceed the abilities of other kings in knowledge, power, military etc… which is impossible to be within the human competency.
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