1. Soul diseases and their treatment according Ghazali
Dr. Milud Hamidat, Department of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Laghouat University – Algeria
Among the fundamental causes of mental illnesses or heart diseases – as Ghazali calls them – is the conflict between the forces of good and those of evil; between reason and instinct; between the need for pleasure and of looking for it. Parallel to this, is the feeling of guilt when one obeys the body instinct and goes beyond the reason. Just from this point stress, tension, rage, aggression, fear and revenge arise. Behavior suffers disorder after the above emotions start to manifest. While repeating they become a habit and custom, which can lead to other types of behavior that many have a deeper impact in the human soul.
2. The Earliest Records in Albanian Folk Music (ca. 1650)
Prof. dr. Bardhyl Demiraj
The subject of this paper are three Albanian folk songs as part of the script heritage of musicologist ‘Alī Ufḳī (1610-1677 ?), which the good-known researcher of oriental musical art Judith Haug has recently investigated and evaluated as not identifiable although for any of them she was convinced that had to be Albanian, due to the fact of the nomination of one song as such <ARNAVT. TURKI.> (= /Arnaut. Turkı./) The aim of our paper is as simple as significant. It is precisely the philological processing and the critical edition of the material in Albanian, indicated by Judith Haug, who was very interested in the content of these songs. The result of this chain reaction is very important: new memorials will now be added to the heritage of Albanian culture, because: a) these are the earliest records of the Albanian Folk Music – (ca. 1650 !) and b) these three songs are brought with the relevant text in Albanian and musical notation.
3. Revealed message – exalted language
Fatos A. Kopliku MS/MA, Washington DC
If we remember the Italian cliché traduttore traditore (translator traitor), it reminds us of the impossibility of the perfect translation of any text, let alone of a sacred text with layered meanings. The scholar A. J. Arberry did rightly call his translation of the Qur’an ‘interpretation’ – Koran Interpreted – and this is what he says in his introduction: “the rhetoric and rhythm of the Arabic of the Koran are so characteristic, so powerful, so highly emotive, that any version whatsoever is bound in the nature of things to be but a poor copy of the glittering splendour of the original.” This doesn’t mean that the Qur’an should be translated in other languages – actually quite the opposite – but it is a must that the translators should have impeccable knowledge of the language of the Qur’an and of the language that is being translated to, of the very rich tradition of the commentaries, of the nuances and context of words and verses, while one should always be mindful that “all translations are ultimately only approaches”.
4. A glance at Islamic legal family – Legal-juridical aspects on protection of property rights
Prof. asoc. doc. dr. Engjëll Likmeta & Qemal Likmeta
Legislation is one of the most important foundations of the Islamic legal family. Islamic law has to do with putting into practice the message of Islam that aims justice and peace, regardless of place or time in which we live. The essence of the Islamic message is love and purity, building bridges of free and respectful dialogue among the messengers of God and their opposites in religion. Islam, in itself, is a free, moral and logical dialogue, which among other things commands for discontinuing the criminal actions in any aspect of life, by rightfully recognizing that “There is no compulsion in religion.” Therefore, from a point of view is more difficult to be a Muslim; it requires much responsibility, as well as delicacy and elevation, because in addition to social principles such as respect, love and understanding, compassion and tenderness is needed; along with patience and tolerance are required knowledge, will, wisdom, balance and synthesis of creative skills.
5. Pedagogical ideas in literary creativity and practical activity of Mehmet Akif Ersoy
Prof. dr. Musa Kraja
Educational goals of Mehmet Akif on morality and family, especially in terms of virtue, etc., recall one of the main areas aimed by the well-known German teacher Herbart, whose pedagogical views although more than two centuries old, penetrated later to us in Albania, during the years 1920-1937, when his ideas became too dominant in our education system, because those were brought here by our students coming from Austria.
Insisting at patriotic education of the new generations, he wider elaborated this issue stressing at morality, by maintaining it sound and through it, starting from the society foundations – the family – as its very important part. A sound and well-functioning of this basic cell of society, will definitely lead us to patriotism in a broader and concrete sense. Mehmet Akif loved and fought for his country Turkey, as well as he felt and tried in every way to feed this love for Albania, and he stated unequivocally being an Albanian, both orally and in his writing, especially in his poems.
6. Religious aspect (with Islamic emphasis) in poetry – Poetry – a path to the soul
Msc. Entela Hidri
Poetry is one of the most beautiful kinds of literature and art of the word. The emphasis on the religious aspect is of particular importance to me, because it gives another priority to the poetry. Handling the poetic creation as a reflection of God’s creation, gives a mystic and spiritual value to this poetry. Quality of poetry as text lies on its effects in all dimensions of life. Therefore, poetry deals every subject and every area of thought. It is one of the most difficult types and elevating ranks of writing.
Poetry finds a way for accessing the soul. Through the mystics, it approaches to the creation of the Master Himself, not to compare with Him, but to glorify the Creator and His universal and unique creation. The beauty of the poetic word does not come by itself, and right here the mystic does consist. This kind of poetry has all the structural elements of poetry from literary figuration, rhythm; rhyme to every detail … The mystical element gives it an added value. And exactly this literary stream which gave priority to the addressing the thematic and mystic-religious element was the doggerelists literature. The themes of this kind of poetry range from topics about God, morality, ethics, human respect, etc.
Welfare of an aesthetic world of poetry based on elements of Islamic religious mysticism, had a special value both in social and artistic terms. Yet to be reviewed other types of creativities that evaluate and use the religious element.
7. The contribution of Piri Reis and Evliya Çelebi to the science of geography
Msc. Artan S. Mehmeti
During his life Piri Reis gave a great contribution to the science of geography and cartography. In modern times he is known for his maps and graphs, which have been published in the book “Kitab-ı Bahriye.” This book also contains detailed information on navigation, as well as many accurate graphics (for their time), describing the important ports and cities in the Mediterranean Sea. He gained fame as a cartographer, where a small part of his world map (work in 1513), was discovered in 1932 at the Topkapi Palace in Istanbul. His world map is the oldest map in Turkish atlases which displays the New World. This map is also one of the oldest maps of America which still exists somewhere (the oldest map of America that still exists today, is the map worked by Juan de la Cosa in 1500, which is stored in the Maritime Museum (Museo Naval) of Madrid, Spain). His maps are focused on Sahara desert and the Tropic of Cancer.
8. Islam Dizdari profile as a lecturer, researcher and exemplary citizen
Prof. dr. Vehbi Hoti, Prof. dr. Njazi Kazazi, University of Shkodra “Luigj Gurakuqi”
They were preachers and scholars, texts drafters and publications authors, translators, poets and linguists, lexicographers and ethnographers, theologians and historians of Islamic culture, teachers and educators, organizers and leaders of religious and educational institutions. Each of them is presented with his own individuality, but three reasons unite them in a common goal of activities: – faith in God and devotion of religious commitment – unshakable love for their country – deep passion for knowledge and culture. The major goal of their life – as clearly expressed by Sheuqet Muka – was that: “Muslims of Albania should be the most developed Muslims of the world, because they are in Europe. Therefore, they should go ahead in order to consider as a lively and progressive element in the heart of Europe.”
9. God and evolution
The mere atheism which denies God, it is a rare phenomenon and it always will be such. But that kind of atheism, which leaves God out of its view on the world, is far more common. There are many theories on universe which leave the God aside. Now, talking on atheism and its theory of universe, I would mention that type of atheism which in his viewpoint leaves aside and don’t recognizes a supreme and perfect (complete) Being, which is unlimitedly knowledgeable, divine and good; that kind of atheism which don’t recognizes anything as a all-knowing God which is above everything, at everything and in everything and don’t remember something (a God) which is neither arbitrary, nor bloody, evil or indifferent to his creatures, but which loves all people: good and evil, saints and sinners, wise and fools. Atheists think that the universe has always existed. Universe either has been created by something greater than it, or has created itself, or has always been such. Now, giving that atheist deny that the universe has been created by a being greater than it, the first point of hypothesis remain out of discussion. But the universe either cannot have created itself, for it must have existed before in order to do this or it must have been non-existent. Thus, this theory asserts that the universe has existed and has not existed at the same time, which is a logical contradiction. Therefore, the third hypothesis according which the universe has always existed is considered the most reliable by the atheists (and as I know, all atheists learn this version). Let’s see what stems from this idea.
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