by Prof. Dr. Ayhan Tekines, Bedër University
Taking into account only the material aspects of the disease is the reason why the concepts of being sick and disease are often seen as an economic event. For some people, the sick persons are already considered as merchandise and source of income. It is very obvious the need for a new approach to the axle of mercy and compassion. To implement this change is necessary that concept such as illness and recovery acquire new interpretations. Acceptance of the fact that the beautiful names of Allah Almighty (SWT) are shown on the sick person will also change our attitude towards the sick people as well as the doctors approach towards the patient. In these conditions, the medicine will have a new metaphysics which will integrally include the universe, life and human beings.
Dr. Hysen Kobellari
During their lives people learn and study continuously. They continuously further clarify themselves for everything happening around and within them, because they first need to be clear on themselves before ordering and advising the others.
Patience is an interior feature of the man, a blessing from God; it is ruling his/her own being by himself/herself without the supervision of someone else; patience is strong willpower; the noble act that promotes self-control, self-discipline and restraint, for the love of God, the Creator of the Universe, the unparalleled sins’ Forgiver, Redeemer of the Peerless; and also for the sake of love for humans. Patience, in a full view is necessary in both directions – active and passive. Active management of patience is displayed on the persistence to achieve a certain goal in the path of Allah.
Bedër University, Department of Islamic Sciences
The Imam Sha’rani method on contradictions resolving really deserves a special attention. People in general, are of the opinion that if on a special case there exist several different fatwas, only one of them is correct and everyone is keen to protect the fatwa of the Imam he pursues. This type of judgment therefore lead to the conclusion that all the others are wrong. But Sha’rani is of the opinion that any madhhab’s Imam was right on the fatwa-s he gave. According to him, the idea that only a fatwa is correct and others are wrong is the logic of those who defend the view that sharia has derived only in one level. On contrary – according to him – sharia is defined at two levels: one is teshdid and the other tahfif.
“There has certainly been for you in the Messenger of Allah an excellent pattern” (33:21)
Fatos Kopliku, M.S.,Washington DC, SHBA
From all human experiences, war is probably the most difficult test of self-control, of the fulfilling of duty without transgressing, and even more so as a place where one can even be merciful; a difficult test, indeed, but not impossible. The chivalric orders of Classical Medieval Age of Europe were practically brotherhoods of monks with swords. Their lives were shaped by a set of rules rooted in Christian spirituality, while they had sworn to military service. Essentially, they tried to internalize the ascetic nature of Christ into the martial sphere of life, and act like Christ had he used a sword. In a very similar way, the character of samurai masters was thoroughly steeped in Buddhism, and essentially the goal was the internalization of the ascetic nature of Buddha (who, like Christ, didn’t use a sword in his life) into the life of a warrior. In Islam, too, the martial spiritual brotherhoods (futuwwa) were present from the earliest times, with rules clearly codified in accordance with Islamic norms. However, unlike Christ or Buddha, the Prophet Muhammad gave himself the example (of conduct) even in this sphere of human life, and in this article we will dwell upon some historical figures that lived this prophetic norm.
Acad. Feti Mehdiu
University of Prishtina
Reciters are Islamic elite and should be considered as such. There have already passed a hundred years from the implementation of a specific embargo to patriotic actions of Islamic elite in service of the country, sometimes even announcing them as traitors and listing them as enemies of the nation in the homeland. Now it is the deadline to open the opportunity for the figure rehabilitation of this category of nation’s intellectuals and to shed light on their contribution for the country.
The gap opened between Islamic elite and the other part of Albanian elite – the so-called secular, after the violent secession of Albanians by the Ottoman Sultanate in 1912 – has resulted in serious consequences in our national history. This category of Albanian intellectuals – who constituted the majority comparing to the secular elite, has been considered as illiterate, just for the reason that they did not know Latin and Cyrillic, despite they knew the three major languages that have dominated Asia and Africa, Anatolia and Rumelia (Arabic, Turkish and Persian). Among them there were also people who knew French language.
The political and social circumstances after 1912, unjustly limited their range of action only in the field of religion to this Albanian intelligence category.
Dr. Genti Kruja
For centuries Muslims and Christians coexisted in peace with one another regardless of the circumstances, different challenges and provocations made mainly through encouragements from abroad in order to damage this harmony. Furthermore, besides harmony and interfaith understanding there also existed an interethnic coexistence Shkodra, where we can mention the Montenegrin community – in majority Muslims – expelled after Montenegro’s independence from the Ottoman Empire, known as podgoricians, but also there existed a Montenegrin Orthodox community, which coexisted in harmony both in the city and in the village where they mainly settled – in Vraka village – just a few miles from Shkodra, on the way to Koplik.
It was exactly the merit of the leaders and clerics, scholars and wise men – both Muslims and Christians of the time – which has made possible preserving this coexistence and interfaith harmony for centuries, and have left it as a testament to the younger generations.
Prof. Dr. Gjergj Sinani, University of Tirana, Faculty of Social Sciences
“When the imam’s song descends from the minaret, Muslims stop working and go to the mosque, after having washed their feet and hands. On Friday afternoon the bazaar is closed. It also closes on Sunday afternoon. Thus, a delicate problem is solved by making pleased both Jesus and Muhammad. Tirana, numbering 15 thousand Muslims and two thousand Christians, manageses to treat equally both beliefs”.
So wrote in 1922 the Swiss journalist Roger Nowlle in the well-known magazine Revue des deux Mondes. I believe that the same spirit of tolerance is shown even today in Tirana, as well as in the entire country after returning back to the sanctuary after the totalitarian night.
As evidence of this tolerance I will quote another passage from the same author. “Some days ago in an Orthodox church of Tirana a funeral cerimony for a Christian Albanian officer who had recently died, was performed. The ceremony was also attended by Muslims, who also held in their hands one of the wreaths. Mullahs carried candles. The Christian priest honored Muhammad and a Muslim imam honored Jesus Christ …
In this way do Albanians realize the unification of the cross with the crescent, which the West has never stopped rejecting …”.
Prof. Dr. Tarik Habib, Saudi Arabia
Muslim scholars have given a quite valuable contribute in psychological studies, but they have not attained the proper attention of psychic sciences experts who apparently have closed their eyes to the contribution of Muslim scholars in this regard. This even though many of them were translated into Latin and had great influence of European thinkers, especially during the Middle Ages and early Renaissance.
It is known that Islamic civilization in scientific terms has greatly benefited from the Greek civilization, but what should be noted is that religion in Greek civilization does not serve as the basis of science, a reference and radiant beacon of knowledge as in the Islamic civilization.
While medicine and mental health services in the Islamic world were at the peak of their boom, in Europe people with mental problems were burning, because it was believed they were possessed.
Language and literature
Prof. Dr. Njazi Kazazi & Dr. Lindita Kazazi, “Luigj Gurakuqi” University
As a teacher, school director, superintendent of education, participant in national activities, the author of many textbooks, with his long work in favor of the Albanian educational system – Ismail Anamali should take a honorable place among the teachers of Shkodra.
A very important area in favor of national education on which Ismail Anamali contributed, is the participation in national educational activities such as the Educational Congress of Lushnja and at the Educational congresses of 1922 and 1924 where he gave his patriotic, cultural and scientific contribution.
Kushtrim Shehu, Gjakova
The ethno-secularism has continuously been served to the Albanian public. Religious leaders and activities, actions and their results are neglected or ignored by the public environment. In recent years, thanks to the efforts of many researchers, many personalities amongst Muslim religious leaders have become known to the masses. Through these efforts prominent personalities are unveiled and enabled us to see the duality of the Albanian intelligence: the intellectual in front of the ulama. This sequence continued after a short period of state foundation. It appeared in other regions where Albanians lived and it is part of today’s debates. It is commendable that the Albanian ulamas in a very wild environment of their existence, have found the possibility of preserving the religion. Albanian society knows no politicization of Islam in its midst. Albanian Ulemas head their obligation to preserve the religion free from any ideology. Such an outcome is likely to be found in the work of every personality among the Albanian Muslim religious leaders.
The main problem which has almost always accompanied the comments when it comes to freedom of expression, has been considering this freedom in its static dimension and excluded from every form of its internal conception. The man as a living being and a consumer of freedom, has always primarily wished to provide himself a sense of liberty. Often considered as a bestowed attribute and not a result produced by him, he has been trying to determine if this freedom is the external appearance or the public face of his inner freedom that stems from the freedom of conscience. Coming from the spiritual world, the feeling of freedom has always accompanied man in his fight against the cage of reality which is built on a number of limitations of inter-dependences, which somehow compromise the absolute freedom which calls to everyone from within his soul. For this reason the individual had to take into account his freedom of collective and social environments at the expense of his outlook of the personal freedom, namely to maintain the social status quo necessary for the continuation of his normal daily activity.
Ferit Vokopola translated the Qur’an and left a manyscript of the Ottoman calendar. his powerful pen shone at Albanian press of the ‘20s -’30, as one of the most polyedric figures of the time.
He studied at the University of Istanbul for justice and economics. He was a politician, economist, theologian, poet, philosopher and essayist.
On November 28, 1912, Ferit Vokopola signed the document of the Declaration of Independence as a delegate of Vlora.
In addition to many scholars of the Qur’an in the world, among the first Albanians people who study it at the end of the nineteenth and early twentieth century were Ferit Vokopola, Hafiz Ali Korça and Haji Vehbi Dibra. These researchers were undoubtedly part of the golden community of the most famous scholars of the Qur’an among Albanians during the past century.
translated by Sheuqet Muka
Many reasons have had you who asked me the Surah Yasin translation for the first time, because for this venerable Surah, our beloved master – the Prophet – has said that it is the heart of the Qur’an. I tried that this translation – sometimes semantically made – be clear, in order that everybody can understand the message and meaning of Yasin, by which we Muslims remember at every moment the souls of our death people.
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