Abstracts in English
The religious conclusion about the hypnotic and stupefacient subjects
by Prof. Dr. Ayhan Tekines
Through creating people, Allah the Almighty had given them the opportunity to distinguish the good and evil from one another; to know what is beautiful and what is ugly. This opportunity consists on the reason and will. Will, that is, making distinction between good and evil is the greatest gift granted to humanity. Furthermore, it can be said the most important feature that makes him different from other beings, that charges him by religious and human responsibility, is the possession of reason and will.
Imam Sha’rani method in legal-religious contradictions solving in his work “el-Mizan”
Department of Islamic Sciences
The Imam Sha’rani method on contradictions resolving really deserves a special attention. People in general, are of the opinion that if on a special case there exist several different fatwas, only one of them is correct and everyone is keen to protect the fatwa of the Imam he pursues. This type of judgment therefore lead to the conclusion that all the others are wrong. But Sha’rani is of the opinion that any madhhab’s Imam was right on the fatwa-s he gave. According to him, the idea that only a fatwa is correct and others are wrong is the logic of those who defend the view that sharia has derived only in one level. On contrary – according to him – sharia is defined at two levels: one is teshdid and the other tahfif.
Secularism, religion and the globalization of relations between East and West
Director of Culture at Muslim Community of Albania
At an increasingly globalized world, in which all religions are increasingly turning into ‘diaspora’ religions, the international links between religions have positive benefits in offering reflective channels in different cultural contexts. But tragically, they can become the conduit through which conflicts are transported from one part of the world to another. Negative portrayals stereotypes about Muslims in the media, have just increased further the suspicion against them. There is also a clear lack of information about Islam in Western societies, with the exception of some specific universities and specialists. But there is also a severe lack of information about the West in many Muslim societies.
From Imam Ali to Salahadin Ejjub, from Emir Abdul-Kader to Hasan Riza Pasha….
Fatos Kopliku, M.S., Washington DC, USA
From all human experiences, war is probably the most difficult test of self-control, of the fulfilling of duty without transgressing, and even more so as a place where one can even be merciful; a difficult test, indeed, but not impossible. The chivalric orders of Classical Medieval Age of Europe were practically brotherhoods of monks with swords. Their lives were shaped by a set of rules rooted in Christian spirituality, while they had sworn to military service. Essentially, they tried to internalize the ascetic nature of Christ into the martial sphere of life, and act like Christ had he used a sword. In a very similar way, the character of samurai masters was thoroughly steeped in Buddhism, and essentially the goal was the internalization of the ascetic nature of Buddha (who, like Christ, didn’t use a sword in his life) into the life of a warrior. In Islam, too, the martial spiritual brotherhoods (futuwwa) were present from the earliest times, with rules clearly codified in accordance with Islamic norms. However, unlike Christ or Buddha, the Prophet Muhammad gave himself the example (of conduct) even in this sphere of human life, and in this article we will dwell upon some historical figures that lived this prophetic norm.
REXHEP ABDULLAH DIZDARI (1895-1976)
a teacher, author of many textbooks and a prominent activist
Prof. Dr. Njazi KAZAZI
Universitety of Shkodra “Luigj Gurakuqi”
Its author was inclined towards the practical problems solving of Albanian society approach. This can be implicated even from the text content. It includes, in addition to teaching literacy, fragments of history, geography, reading, arithmetic content and also practical lessons for personal and commercial correspondence (which serve as review or feedback), all of these useful knowledge and necessary cultural background for everyday life of artisans, shopkeepers etc. In this regard, the book was very useful, if not indispensable for a large part of the population.
CONTRIBUTION OF RELIGION INSTITUTIONS IN NATIONAL AWARENESS RAISE
Doc. Dr. Faredin Ebibi
Dean of the Faculty of Islamic Sciences – Skopje
Given the fact that language is a component of national identity, this element had found an unreserved support at mosques during the harsh monistic period. The communist regime insisted at all costs in corrupting the Albanian people’s language through many Slavic toponyms in books, literature, printed media and listeners. The only institution which firmly resisted to this ferocious campaign was the mosque, respectively the imams who were away from any influence of that campaign. Through khutbah, derses and various speeches they defended our pure language from such tendentious influences. Such a segment may not has been very important in other Albanian areas of but within Kumanovo it has been very important and of a unique national value.
Contribution of Hodja Kadri Pristina in protecting the integrity of the Albanian Lands
Mr. Qemajl Morina
Faculty of Islamic Studies – Prishtina
Albanian religious leaders and intellectuals representatives of the three main religions of Albania were involved in the fight for Albania independence, which was formally proclaimed on November 28, 1912. A special contribution in this aspect was also given by the Islamic religious leaders, who had difficulties in getting involved at this process, because they had to oppose the state which had until then represented their interests, for Albanians due to their privileged position in the Ottoman state had been participating in its higher structures through more than 36 prime ministers, many ministers, wali-s, military commanders, Islamic Shaykh etc. Among these personalities was also part Hodja Kadri Prishtina, who better than anyone else embodies the relationship between Albania and Kosovo. He was born in Kosovo, where he spent part of his youth, while in Albania he spent the rest of life to his death.
FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION
It’s a bit hard to argue the fact that freedom as a concept which should stay disconnected, or put differently, emancipated from the order and collocation, norms and rules, as long as it takes shape as a category within this reality. We live in a world where the order in its cosmological meaning is the main characteristic of existence. It (order) is projected from the macrosphere in a cosmos where the perfect order and natural law are an exterior form of maintenance, a visual form of a reality which our generations have the luxury to perceive. This order comes also down at a teleological form to the existence of our planet by structuring the creatures and objects items existence.
Hybridization of the media genre in Albania
Hybridism is back in fashion in many areas. Many branches of science have been adapting their curricula, combining those subjects that until recently were considered as “other field” of study. The combination between the old media and the new ones has been presented to us, with another approach of the media scene, in which makes part even Albania. Viewing along with following this trend, and taking into consideration various studies on this topic, I have been convinced that it is the right moment that such developments must be identified and treated carefully, by defining a fitting approach.
In this paper a number of hybridism cases in the Albanian media system will be revealed, emphasizing the lines that researchers of the science of communication suggest, so to assist the media consumers to understand it, avoiding victimization of the consumers, but neither creating a hostile attitude against media. The methodology that has been used during this paper is combining theory with empirical evidences such as monitoring of the media and interviews with various media agents. The interviews with the media agents of various genres will comprise the main shaft of the study.
ON THE ANNIVERSARY OF THE TIRANA MADRASAH’S FOUNDING
High Madrasah of Tirana – the dream of Islamic believers
The success of madrasas is clearly displayed in students’ acquisition of knowledge in natural science subjects taught in English, in the high and qualitative passing rate in all subjects and especially in the subjects of Matura exams, where any of them (Tirana) competes with dignity with the best public or private Albanian schools.
ISLAMIC MODEL IN THE WOMEN EMANCIPATION
Dr. Muhamed Amare
If the winds of pre-Islamic ignorance, have managed to recover some customs and traditions that had dominated the world before Islam, they have not reached to prevail upon the achievements of the Islamic emancipation of women. The spirit of this emancipation and its fruits are also observed at the time of Islamic civilization regression – a regression which has plagued the Muslim world. Even in these difficult conditions, our social life offers women models which penetrate into different areas of life, such as the science of Hadith, Fiqh, literature etc.
Hafiz Ismet Dibra (1886-1955)
In all its activities Hafiz Ismet Dibra was guided by the Qur’an teachings and given the structure of the Albanian population, it can be said his works and teachings of tolerance among religions and believers prevailed. Madrassa of Tirana, directed by H. Ismet Dibra , preserved and followed the tradition of educating students, besides the religious and the patriotic spirit tempering and the national consciousness awakening.
The Madrassa General (University) of Muslim Community
This article talks about the opening of Tirana Madrassa in 1924, which was planned to have the last 4 years of the secondary school system, 4 years of high school and then the university. Due to the time circumstances and of the difficult financial situation, it had only the secondary and high school levels. This madrassa for years prepared a number of intellectuals, giving a significant contribution to the formation of new generations, especially through the genre of outstanding teachers this school prepared, who later served throughout the country in public schools, especially during the period after religion closure in 1967.Madrassa’s students of its last years (’50 -’60) would later become promoters of the mosques re-opening and of religious freedom in 1990, serving as mufti-s in various districts and as teachers in madrassas founded in several cities of Albania.
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