1. Islam and the national unity
Hafiz Ali Kraja
Before the global war, the world had more or less provided an apparent tranquility through political relationships and agreements among nations, and people were making economic competition between them, trying to surpass each other. This ugly idea, slowly introduced human societies into mechanical actions and material life began dominate people’s lives instead of spiritual connexions. It was widespread such a propaganda that religious faith was a strong barrier, which was considered to be against human progress and development and in this spirit, stringent discussions were held.
Gystav Le Bon (Gustave Le Bon) while speaking on the subject says: “At the present time the whole Europe is undergoing a dangerous disorder. Passing through dangerous crisis since the general war, the social, economic and political balance attired the attention of many thinkers, leaders of the nations, who began to think and work on overcoming this disorder. It was noted a return towards religious and spiritual feelings, without which it had been proven that there was no escape.”
2. Imam Sha’râni and his approach to Islamic jurisprudence
Private High School Full Moon Bedër
Department of Islamic Sciences
In this article we will discuss about a very interesting and unique figure in the Islamic history known as Imam Sha’rani.
The extensive horizon of this scholar is very important being recognized because it contains meaningful messages and his life is a model for all believers and especially for all students of knowledge.
3. The importance of divine revelation in national identity protection and the risk from the epistemological – anthropocentric approach
– Hafiz Ali Korça case –
Doc. Dr. Qani Nesimi, State University of Tetovo
In this scientific paper will be discussed about bi-polarization in human evaluation in particular and social values in general, always taking into consideration the opinions of Hafiz Ali Korça. Thus, on the one hand is the epistemological – anthropocentric evaluation, and on the other is an estimate from the theocentric perspective, i.e. having at focus the divine revelation / Allah’s revelation. In the first case, the man is a slave of desires, passions and understanding system of another human. Meanwhile, in the second case, the man is the slave of Allah, i.e. the Merciful and Almighty Creator. Hafiz Ali Korça speaks for the extremism of divine revelation dimension removal, i.e. he talks about the concept which stems from the revelation and its importance in human salvation in this world and the next, while on the other hand he talks about the risk and crisis that the human – in this case the Albanian people – will overtake by the anti-religious communist / Bolshevik ideology, which has its evaluation source based on the epistemological – anthropocentric concept approach, to which it prevents everything related to the sacred. Therefore Hafiz Ali says, “Mosques and churches they didn’t leave, they ruined; through these acts devils were noted; priests and imams as goats they slaughtered; (Bolshevisma, 135). Likewise he speaks about the apocalypses coming from Bolshevism / Communism misdeeds, which according to him are “economically, neatly, courteously, socially, tradely, family, morally and religiously severe.” (Bolshevisma, p. 32).
4. The history of secularization in Albania- 1944 and onwards II
Terminologically and by their goal realization methods, atheism and secularism appear as different, vis-a-vis to each other. Substantially they want the same thing; they have the same goal: the human orientation towards scientific materialism to achieve earthly paradise, of course not eternal. Therefore a strong and extreme secularism, which requires a complete removal of the Upper Power from the scene of human life, from the influence in public life and an increasingly weaker influence in the individual life to a total dis-influencation, it would have anymore any difference from atheism.
5. Independence in Albanian ulema (scholars) literary writings
Prof. Dr. Hysen Matoshi, Albanological Institute of Prishtina
Personalities who besides their love for the homeland, nation, its values and identity, openly showed love for our Creator, Allah, the Exalted, were imprecated and deported in all directions. Such a harmful approach was also extended in assessing the contributions of prominent figures our culture history, though their assistance given to raising the nation was crucial to historical processes.
These ulema-s of such caliber, our nation appointed at the forefront of important developments, but an evil and extremely ideological historiography excluded them for many decades from our history pages just because they weren’t conceptually suited for it, and tried hard to prevent that these notable figures of Islamic religious provenience have the importance which they have historically had.
6. Tolerance in the Ottoman State imperial decrees among Albanians
Dr. Genti Kruja, Muslim Community of Albania
Despite history is complex, it suffices to take a look at some of the Ottoman sultans imperial decrees in order to show and demonstrate examples of tolerance and the source from which it has leaked, therefore one can easily observe the tolerance and harmony coming from the highest levels of supreme royal power to the common people layers, in response to even the most ordinary demands such as complaints about church properties belongings, or even common individuals of different religion background properties issues, addressed to the Sublime Porte rulers.
7. Fusha e Çelës (Çela’s field) – the charitable footprint of Çel Zylyftari…
Imam Muhamed Sytari, Mufti of Shkodra District
… and from that time ongoing, up to now, whenever is being talked about this area of Shkodra city, although the roads and buildings around it have changed their names, everybody keep in his/her mind a common denominator: the origin of this centuries-old land, which has been and still continues to be called: Fushë-Çelë.
Language and Literature
8. Sufi Tradition: Harmony of nature, Tehajjulat (dreams)/Perceptions
Dr. Brikena Smajli
The paper is an introduction to the study of Naim Frashëri work in a cultural context – a comparative aspect versus a rich culture of poetry: the Persian one, as an European author of oriental culture, aiming to a clearer view towards the poetic work of Naim himself written in Albanian language, its relations with the Quranic imagination versus Naim himself as an Albanian author, comparable with other contemporary European authors.
For this, the attention given to the poetic text entitled Tehajjula in Persian language takes priority, from which the conclusions about this poetic work of the author himself are drawn.
It must be noted that this paper will focus precisely on Naim’s oriental approaches compared to a modern poet W.B. Yeats, from which an attention to the text and inter-text and also relevant languages and cultures that both poets have, in a synchronic and diachronic viewpoint has resulted necessary.
9. Primers in Albanian language and the Albanian national independence: An overview about the Albanian-Italian bilingual primer
MA. Lindita Kazazi & Prof. Dr. Njazi Kazazi
University of Shkodra “Luigj Gurakuqi”
The primer, unlike other books in the whole world, is closely related to the life of every child who sits for the first time in the school desks. With this book an issuing and acquiring a programmed culture and education begins. Through it, children start their literacy learning in their native language, but especially for the Albanians this book has had multifaceted functions.
10. Social conflicts as a result of freedoms’ imbalance
(The case of cartoons and of insulting film to the Prophet Muhammad a.s.)
MA. Redi Shehu
In this research project, we will focus on the phenomenon in which two guaranteed rights in democratic and liberal-democratic states collide with each other, causing social tension. The special case in which we will focus is the case of the cartoons, and derogatory film to the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), within a period from September 2005 until the fall of 2012 – a phenomenon which caused major tensions and debates across the globe, being accompanied by many victims and especially the murder of the American ambassador in Benghazi consulate in Libya. We will specifically focus at freedom of expression and freedom of religion as the foundation of debate and conflict that caused the event. Freedom of expression and freedom of religion are inseparable from one another within a given context. Any mechanical separation of the freedom of faith expression and its absolutization, leads to dogmatism of this freedom and every type of dogmatism is likely to turn into dictate. Thus, we can say that if we proceed with boundless absolutization of expression freedom, not specifying human limits, we take over the risk to restore the freedom of expression from a pillar of democracy to a dictates building and a “freedom of expression” dictatorship. What is obvious in these approaches is the escape of metaphysical deal of understanding about freedom in general and freedom of expression in particular, which actually is an inevitable dimension of society’s member. For this reason, a research on freedom’s metaphysics and order will be present in this paper. The pragmatic division between public and private in modernity does not undertake, say, take care so much for such a moral and also ethical dimension of the freedom of expression, which would be impossible without a metaphysical analysis of its source.
11. Online media and the “hate speech”
Prof. As. Dr. Gentiana Skura, Tirana University
There is still no clear definition of what “hate speech” means, but so far the idea that “hate speech” covers all forms of expression which propagate, incite and promote racial and religious xenophobia, anti-Semitism or other forms of hatred based on intolerance expressed by aggressive nationalism and ethnocentrism, discrimination and hostility against minorities and immigrants, has prevailed.
12. The values of coexistence and its principles in the Medina Document
Dr. Muhamed Sherkawi, Al-Ez’her University, Cairo, Egypt
Medina Document and the signed pact with the Christians of Najran and its surroundings, such as the Omar’s agreement later, guaranteed to the People of the Book citizens a privileged status within the Islamic state. Prophet Muhammad a.s. assured them of their rights, considering that they were in the covenant of God and Muhammad, the Messenger of God. Medina Document concludes with the words: “Allah and His Messenger (p.u.b.h.) would be at defense ofwhoever would wholeheartedly respect this agreement and would obey to it.”
We should not forget that this constitutional document was written at a time when the rights of citizens were not taken into consideration even in both great empires of the time: Byzantium and Persia, imagine how could one think being respected by Arab tribes in the Arabian Peninsula. If we recall Plato and Aristotle attempts to develop a political theory of Greek society, we can understand the major differences between the Medina Document and political philosophers theories which were developed by Plato (at his book “Republic”) and Aristotle in his book on politics.
13. Imam Tomja – the personification of popular philosophy in Debar
(Life of an Albanian Muslim cleric in the context of national history)
Prof. dr. Bajram Xhafa, University of Shkodra
Not only when alive, but even long after his death up to nowadays, the words of the Great Imam, his replicas, the messages he left, his forecasts for social development etc. are still mentioned in various conversations. In many talks within people chambers, but also in occasional meetings in the streets, while shopping, in the Minor Inlet (Gryka e Madhe) and further across Debar, one can constantly hear “references” about the Imam’s thoughts and words: “The Great Imam has said so and so.” Almost there was no aspect of life that people didn’t refer to the Imam’s speeches and actions, his example, his reaction and his methods of behavior. His comeback was phenomenal. His speech had a great significance and constituted an important opinion in the society. People used the messages he conveyed, which were opposing those of communist regime, as an alibi for their camouflaged positions towards official propaganda. Furthermore, he spent his entire life doing the dissenter. “The words of Great Imam were realized” declared people after their conversations about various societal phenomenon. In replicas and conversation he had very quick and intelligent reactions. He responded immediately to everyone. Above all, he was distinguished for his generalizations, vision, clarity and coherence of thoughts. To all provocative questions, Imam gave very fast and sometimes very tough and even cynical answers. Where Imam Tomja was, one had to think well his words, otherwise he whipped him, or as people say in Debar, “ he adjusted the saddle to him.”
14. Albanian Muslim Community activity in the 20’s of XX-th century at national and social aspect
by Siri Hoxha
“A society that does not rely on the idea of religiosity, has not the basis of spiritual unity. And where the spiritual unity lacks, there can be no question of organized society and nationalism.”
It is the merit of the Albanian Muslim Community which, besides becoming an independent, rightly realized its role and position in a multi-religious state by building its own physiognomy, rose relying on the motto: “Love for the Homeland derived from faith.” Likewise, for the merit of the Albanian state at that time, which despite such circumstances where it had to self-constitute, it found the way to open the path for construction of religious communities able to survive and introduced legal and correct relationships with them in the positions of a secular state, which is aware of the place and role of religion in shaping a vital nation for which all religions are equally respected.
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